Acute Mitral Regurgitation
Acute mitral regurgiation is a disorder in which the mitral valve suddenly fails to properly close. The disorder is caused by rupture of chordae tendinae (for example, by endocarditis), rupture of papillary muscles (for example, for myocardial infarction or trauma), or problems with a prosthetic valve.
Since the mitral valve connects the left atrium and ventricle, acute mitral regurgitation is characterized by blood from the left ventricle back-flowing into the left atrium when the ventricle contracts. Therefore, the body will not receive as much blood as it needs and the heart will have to pump harder. This results in rapid breathing, shortness of breath, palpitations, chest pain, cough, fatigue, trouble breathing at night, syncope, edema (in lungs, legs, and feet), lightheadedness, irregular heart rhythms, low blood pressure, and rapid heartbeat. These symptoms may arrive suddenly.
The clinical diagnosis is by palpation, ausculatation, Swan-Ganz (right heart catheterization) pressure readings, echocardiogram, color flow Doppler, transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, coronary catherization, chest MRI, and chest CT.
Acute MR is treated by surgery, intra-aortic balloon pump, anti-arrhythmics, vasodilators, digitalis, and diuretics.